Mild Cognitive Impairment(MCI)

Introduction

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome or diagnostic category considered to precede certain neurodegenerative diseases years before they appear, although not necessarily a precursor of them. The syndrome can be divided into two broad subtypes: amnestic MCI (aMCI) characterized by reduced memory, and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) in which cognitive functions other than memory are mostly impaired. aMCI seems to represent an early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while the outcomes of the naMCI subtypes appear more heterogeneous; including vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies, but this aspect is still under debate (Hughes, Snitz, & Ganguli, 2011). Recently, mild cognitive impairment has been re-conceptualized by The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), in which MCI is now regarded as Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (MND). Among the major conceptual changes, MND is now classified into four different subtypes based on the affected cognitive domains. The subtypes are amnestic mono-domain, amnestic multi-domain, non-amnestic multi-domain, and non-amnestic mono-domain (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Peraita, Chacón, Díaz-Mardomingo & Martínez-Arias, 2015).

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